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BREAST CANCER AND DIET
A series of reports and studies
1: Cancer Lett 2000 Dec 8;161(1):47-55
Plasma insulin-like growth factor I levels are reduced by dietary supplementation of flaxseed or its
lignan secoisolariciresinol diglycoside.
Rickard SE, Yuan YV, Thompson LU.Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, 150
College Street, Ontario M5S 3E2, Toronto, Canada.
Flaxseed and its lignan secoisolariciresinol diglycoside (SDG) inhibit mammary
tumor development. Increased plasma insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) concentrations are associated with increased
breast cancer risk. Therefore, the effect of flaxseed (5%) or SDG (1.5 mg/day)
supplementation on plasma IGF-I levels was examined. Only flaxseed significantly reduced plasma IGF-I concentrations.
The anticancer effect of flaxseed and SDG may be related, in part, to reductions in plasma IGF-I.
2: Nutr Cancer 1999;35(1):50-7
Dose effects of flaxseed and its lignan on N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced mammary tumorigenesis.
Rickard SE, Yuan YV, Chen J, Thompson LU. Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, ON, Canada.
Dietary supplementation with flaxseed or its lignan secoisolariciresinol diglycoside
(SDG) has reduced dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced mammary tumor size and number. The objective of this
study was to determine whether flaxseed has a dose-dependent effect on N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU)-induced mammary tumor promotion and
whether this effect can be attributed to its SDG. Thus, although flaxseed feeding had no significant effect on tumor growth indexes, flaxseed
and SDG treatment, regardless of dose, appeared to delay the progression of MNU-induced mammary
tumorigenesis. Disparities between this study and previous studies on flaxseed may be related to differences in experimental design,
the use and dose of a different carcinogen, and protective effects by the alpha-linolenic acid present in the basal diet.
3: Carcinogenesis 1999 Sep;20(9):1831-5
Exposure to flaxseed or its lignan component during different developmental stages.
Tou JC, Thompson LU. Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto, 150 College Street, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 3E2.
Reduction of the highly proliferative terminal end bud (TEB) structures in the developing mammary gland by differentiation to alveolar buds (ABs)
and lobules has been suggested to be protective against mammary cancer. Flaxseed is high in alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and
secoisolariciresinol diglycoside (SDG). SDG is the precursor of mammalian lignans, which can affect mammary gland
structures. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the effect of lifetime, gestation and lactation or after-weaning exposure to 5 or
10% flaxseed or SDG and flaxseed oil components on the mammary gland. Lifetime or gestation and lactation exposure to flaxseed altered mammary
gland structure development, whereas exposure to flaxseed after weaning had no effect. Lifetime or gestation and lactation exposure to 5% flaxseed
caused endocrine changes, as suggested by delayed puberty onset and reduced number of estrous cycles. These changes reduced
exposure to endogenous estrogens, leading to atrophy of mammary TEB structures. SDG, but
not flaxseed oil, at the level found in 5% flaxseed produced similar effects as 5% flaxseed. This suggested that the
lignans were the component in flaxseed responsible for the observed effects. Lifetime or gestation and
lactation exposure to 10% flaxseed also caused endocrine changes, as suggested by early puberty onset and lengthened cycles due to prolonged estrus.
This increased exposure to endogenous estrogens and stimulated mammary gland differentiation, as indicated by fewer TEBs and more ABs. Thus,
lifetime or gestation and lactation exposure to 5 or 10% flaxseed induced structural changes in the mammary gland that may potentially reduce mammary
Flaxseed during one's lifetime, or just during lactation and gestation, changes the internal structure of the breast, which reduces the chances
of ever developing breast cancer. P. S.
4: Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 1999 Jul;85(1):47-51
Phytoestrogens: the "natural" selective estrogen receptor modulators?
Brzezinski A, Debi A.Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem, Israel.
Phytoestrogens are diphenolic compounds that are present in several plants eaten by human beings. Soybeans and flaxseed
are particularly abundant source of phytoestrogens. When ingested in relatively large amounts, phytoestrogens have been
shown to have significant estrogen agonists/antagonists effects in animals and humans. There is epidemiological, laboratory
and clinical evidence which indicates that phytoestrogens, like certain selective estrogen receptor mudulators, have an antiproliferative
effect on the breast, and positive effects on the lipoprotein profile and bone density. They might also improve some of the climacteric symptoms.
This evidence is critically reviewed, and the possible benefit of dietary intervention with phytoestrogen-rich food for woman's health is discussed.
Phytoestrogens from plants like flax or soy reduce chances of breast cancer, improves cholesterol, and improves bone density. P. S.
5: Nutr Cancer 1999;33(2):188-95
Effect of flaxseed consumption on urinary estrogen metabolites in postmenopausal women.
Haggans CJ, Hutchins AM, Olson BA, Thomas W, Martini MC, Slavin JL.Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Minnesota, St. Paul 55108, USA.
Flaxseed, the richest known source of plant lignans, has been shown to have chemoprotective effects in cell studies.
Some of its effects may be mediated through its influence on endogenous hormone production and metabolism. Two competing pathways in estrogen metabolism involve
production of the 2-hydroxylated and 16 alpha-hydroxylated metabolites. Because of the proposed differences in biological activities of these metabolites, the
balance of the two pathways has been used as a biomarker for breast cancer risk. We examined the effects of flaxseed consumption on urinary estrogen metabolite
excretion in postmenopausal women. Twenty-eight postmenopausal women were studied for three seven-week feeding periods in a randomized crossover
design. During the feeding periods, subjects consumed their usual diets plus ground flaxseed (0, 5, or 10 g/day). Urinary excretion of the estrogen
metabolites 2-hydroxyestrogen (2-OHEstrogen) and 16 alpha-hydroxyestrone (16 alpha-OHE1) as well as their ratio, 2/16 alpha-OHE1, was measured by enzyme immunoassay.
Flaxseed supplementation significantly increased urinary 2-OHEstrogen excretion (p < 0.0005) and the urinary 2/16 alpha-OHE1 ratio (p < 0.05) in a linear, dose-response
fashion. There were no significant differences in urinary 16 alpha-OHE1 excretion. These results suggest that flaxseed may have chemoprotective
effects in postmenopausal women.
Flaxseed protects postmenopausal women from various types of cancer. P. S.
6: Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 1994 Aug;50(3-4):205-12
Lignans and flavonoids inhibit aromatase enzyme in human preadipocytes.
Wang C, Makela T, Hase T, Adlercreutz H, Kurzer MS.Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Minnesota, St Paul 55108.
Lignans and flavonoids are naturally-occurring diphenolic compounds found in high concentrations in whole grains, legumes, fruits and
vegetables. Seven lignans and six flavonoids were evaluated for their abilities to inhibit aromatase enzyme activity in a human preadipose cell culture system. The
lignan, enterolactone (Enl) and its theoretical precursors, 3'-demethoxy-3O-demethylmatairesinol (DMDM) and didemethoxymatairesinol (DDMM)
decreased aromatase enzyme activity, with Ki values of 14.4, 5.0 and 7.3 microM, respectively. The flavonoids, coumestrol, luteolin and kaempferol also decreased
aromatase enzyme activity, with Ki values of 1.3, 4.8 and 27.2 microM, respectively. Aminoglutethimide, a pharmaceutical aromatase inhibitor, showed a Ki value of 0.5
microM. Kinetic studies showed the inhibition by all compounds to be competitive. Smaller decreases in aromatase activity were observed with the
lignan, enterodiol (End) and its theoretical precursors, O-demethylsecoisolariciresinol (ODSI), demethoxysecoisolariciresinol (DMSI) and
didemethylsecoisolariciresinol (DDSI). The flavonoids, O-demethylangolensin (O-Dma), fisetin and morin showed no inhibitory effects. The inhibition of human preadipocyte
aromatase activity by lignans and flavonoids suggests a mechanism by which consumption of lignan- and flavonoid-rich plant
foods may contribute to reduction of estrogen-dependent disease, such as breast cancer.
See below for a sample of Fortified Flax Hulls (1st pic) and Flax Hulls (2nd pic)
Each jar contains 180gm of fortified flax hulls or 150gm of flax hulls
The above information is provided for general
educational purposes only. It is not intended to replace competent
health care advice received from a knowledgeable healthcare professional.
You are urged to seek healthcare advice for the treatment of any
illness or disease.
HThe Food Standard Agency UK has not evaluated these
statements. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent