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|Effect of Lignans on Prostate Cancer|
|Lignans may Prevent Prostate Cancer|
|Breast Cancer - reports and trials|
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|New Therapies for Psoriasis|
|HRT - a significant breast cancer risk|
|Importance of fibre in diet|
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|ASA may cut breast cancer risk: study|
|Milk may lower colon cancer risk|
|Study cast doubt on soy as menopause aid|
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|The First Steps to a Strong Immune System|
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Source: NIH Senior Health (National Cancer Institute), USA
June 29, 2004
There are a number of ways to treat prostate cancer, and the doctor will develop a treatment to fit each
man's needs. The choice of treatment mostly depends on the stage of the disease and the grade of the
tumor. But doctors also consider a man's age, general health, and his feelings about the treatments and
their possible side effects.
Treatment for prostate cancer may involve watchful waiting, surgery, radiation therapy, or hormonal therapy.
Some men receive a combination of therapies. A cure is the goal for men whose prostate cancer is diagnosed early.
You and your doctor will want to consider both the benefits and possible side effects of each option,
especially the effects on sexual activity and urination, and other concerns about quality of life.
Surgery, radiation therapy, and hormonal therapy all have the potential to disrupt sexual desire or performance
for a short while or permanently. Discuss your concerns with your health care provider. Several options are available
to help you manage sexual problems related to prostate cancer treatment.
The doctor may suggest watchful waiting for some men who have prostate cancer that is found at an early stage and
appears to be growing slowly. Also, watchful waiting may be advised for older men or men with other serious medical
For these men, the risks and possible side effects of surgery, radiation therapy, or hormonal therapy may outweigh the
possible benefits. Doctors monitor these patients with regular check-ups. If symptoms appear or get worse, the doctor
may recommend active treatment.
Surgery is used to remove the cancer. It is a common treatment for early stage prostate cancer. The surgeon may remove
the entire prostate with a type of surgery called radical prostatectomy or, in a few cases, remove only part of it.
Sometimes the surgeon will also remove nearby lymph nodes. Side effects of the operation may include lack of sexual
function or impotence, or problems holding urine or incontinence.
Improvements in surgery now make it possible for some men to keep their sexual function. In some cases, doctors can use
a new technique known as nerve-sparing surgery. This may save the nerves that control erection. However, men with large
tumors or tumors that are very close to the nerves may not be able to have this surgery.
Some men with trouble holding urine may regain control within several weeks of surgery. Others continue to have problems
that require them to wear a pad.
Radiation therapy uses high-energy x-rays to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors. Doctors may recommend it instead of
surgery or after surgery to destroy any cancer cells that may remain in the area.
In advanced stages, the doctor may recommend radiation to relieve pain or other symptoms. It may also be used in combination
with hormonal therapy. Radiation can cause problems with impotence and bowel function.
The radiation may come from a machine, which is external radiation, or from tiny radioactive seeds placed inside or near the
tumor, which is internal radiation. Men who receive only the radioactive seeds usually have small tumors. Some men receive
both kinds of radiation therapy.
For external radiation therapy, patients go to the hospital or clinic -- usually 5 days a week for several weeks. Internal
radiation may require patients to stay in the hospital for a short time.
Hormonal therapy deprives cancer cells of the male hormones they need to grow and survive. This treatment is often used for
prostate cancer that has spread to other parts of the body.
Sometimes doctors use hormonal therapy to try to keep the cancer from coming back after surgery or radiation treatment. Side
effects can include impotence, hot flashes, loss of sexual desire, and thinning of bones. Some hormone therapies increase the
risk of blood clots.
Regardless of the type of treatment you receive, you will be closely monitored to see how well the treatment is working.
Monitoring may include: